Put simply, and in a quite general manner, Judaism is similar to Christianity (from my perspective, ALL religions are quite similar actually) minus Jesus Christ being the main focal point (rather Abraham may be their main patriarchy followed). Both religions use the Old Testament. Christianity adds in the New Testament (as well as other texts depending on the sect) whereas Judaism focuses mainly on the Torah / Pentateuch / Hebrew Bible / 1st 5 books of Moses, which is a sub-set of the Tanakh. Or did Moses offer 7 or more different texts?
Some would say that Judaism focus is on God's Law. Many/most people that choose to follow Judaism as a religion/belief system, do not deny Christ's existence, however, believe that Jesus was not the messiah/savior. (why do we get so caught up over these things/words instead of focusing on similarities?) Both religions are monotheistic in nature/in general, though it is important to note that there are many, many, many different sects of all religions... We're all one/connected, while being unique, I'd say. 🙂 There are also those that may prefer to label themselves as a Jewish Mystic (just as their are Christian Mystics, Gnostics, as well as Mystics who's gurus followed Hinduism / other religions.
Also as in all religions / belief systems, symbology plays a huge role. The Star of David is one that is very important. Some see this as the union / unity of the masculine and the feminine energies existing in everything in nature. This gets into Kabbalah and even alchemy however, which you may find more information about on this site.
Another is the candleabra. The Hebrew language itself is also very important (due to its correspondences numerical/other) in Judaism.
Yet another main symbol for some that may consider themselves Jewish, is the cube. This symbol is shared by many following the Islamic faith/tradition as well.